Sunday, 13 October 2013

MODAL VERBS -MODALNI GLAGOLI






TALKING ABOUT ABILITY:

CAN/COULD

We use CAN to say that something is possible or that somebody has the ability to do sth. 
( Koristimo CAN   kako bismo iskazali da je nešto moguće ili da neko ima mogućnost da uradi nešto.)

COULD- 1. use especially with see, hear,smell,taste,feel, remember,understand.
(COULD- 1. koristi se naročite uz glagole see, hear, smell, taste, feel , remember, understand).

·        When we went into the house, we could smell burning.
( Kada smo ušli u kuću, mogli smo da nanjušimo 
·        She spoke ina a very low voice, but I could understand what she said.
( Govorila je veoma tiho, ali sam razumeo šta je rekla.) 

                2. use to say that somebody had the general ability or permission to do sth.
                2. koristi se radi iskazivanja opšte sposobnosti  ili dozvole da se uradi nešto.
·        My grandfather could speak several languages.
     ( Moj otac je mogao govoriti nekoliko jezika.) 
·        We were completely free. We could do what we wanted ( we were allowed to do..)
( Bili smo potpuno slobodni. Mogli smo raditi šta smo želeli ( bilo nam je dozvoljeno da radimo..) 
                3. we use could for general ability. But, if we are talking about what happened in a particular situation we use was/were able to ..or managed to... ( not could ). 
                   ( koristimo could za izražavanje opšte sposobnosti. međutim, ako pričamo o tome šta se desilo u određenoj situaciji koristimo was/were able to ..ili  managed to... ( ne could )).
                                

·        The fire spread through the building quickly but everybody was able to escape or everybody managed to escape. 
    
·        They didn't want to come with us at first but we managed to persuade them or we were able to persuade them ( not could persuade ) 
 
Compare: (Uporedite):
§         Jack was an excellent tennis player. He could beat anybody.
( =he had the general ability to beat anybody) 
( =imao je sposobnost da bilo koga pobedi)

but (ali)

§         Jack and Alf had a game of tennis yesterday. Alf played very well but in the end Jack managed to beat him or was able to beat him. = ( he managed to beat him in this particular game )
                     =( uspeo je da ga pobedi u određenoj igri) 
COULDN'T is possible in all situations.
(COULDN'T je moguće u svim situacijama.)

TALKING ABOUT POSSIBILITY
(IZRAŽAVANJE VEROVATNOĆE)

COULD- 1. to talk about possible actions now or in the future ( esp. to make a suggestion.) CAN is also possible but you must use could not can when you don't really mean what you say.
(COULD -1. pričanje o mogućim radnjama u sadašnjosti ili budućnosti ( posebno radi sugerisanja). CAN je takođe moguće, ali morate koristiti could a ne can, kada ne mislite zaista ono što govorite).

§         I'm so angry with him. I could kill him! ( not: 'I can kill him')
      ( Toliko sam ljuta na njega. Mogla bih ga ubiti! ( ne: 'Mogu ga ubiti')

                2. to say that sth is possible now or in the future.
                    ( radi iskazivanja da je nešto moguće sada ili u budućnosti.) 
§         The phone is ringing. It could be Tim. ( Telefon zvoni. Možda je Tim).
§         I don't know when they'll be here. They could arrive at any time.
      ( Ne znam kada će biti ovde. Mogu stići bilo kada.) 
                Can is not possible in these examples ( not it can be Tim). In these sentences could is similar to might.       
                (Can nije moguć u ovim primerima ( ne može ' It can be Tim' .)U ovim rečenicama could je sličan sa might.)   
§         The phone is ringing. It might be Tim.


COULD (DO)
(MOĆI)
    • I'm so tired. I could sleep for a week. ( now)

COULD HAVE ( DONE )
(MOGAO/LA/LO)
    • I was so tired. I could have slept for a week. (past)

Could have ( done) –for things which were possible but didn't happen.

MUST- to say that we feel sure sth is true:
    • You've been travelling all day. You must be tired. (Travelling is tiring and you've been travelling all day, so you must be tired)

CAN'T –to say that we feel sure sth is not possible.
    • You just had lunch. You can't be hungry already. ( People are not normally hungry just after eating a meal- You've just eaten, so you can't be hungry. )

PAST
(PROŠLOST)

For the past we use MUST HAVE (DONE) and CAN'T HAVE (DONE).
( Za prošlost koristimo  MUST HAVE (DONE) i CAN'T HAVE (DONE).)
    • George is outside his friend's house. He has rung the doorbell three times but nobody has answered. They must have gone out.

MAY/MIGHT

Use may/might to say that sth is a possibility.
    • It may be true or it might be true. ( perhaps it's true )

MAY NOT/MIGHT NOT ( MIGHTN'T)
(MOŽDA NIJE/VEROVATNO NIJE)

    • It may not be true. ( perhaps it isn't true) ( verovatno nije tačno)
    • I'm not sure whether I can lend you any money. I may not have enough. (perhaps I don't have enough) ( verovatno nemam dovoljno)

Sometimes COULD has a similar meaning to MAY/MIGHT 
(Ponekad     COULD ima slično značenje kao MAY/MIGHT)

·        The phone's ringing. It could be Tim ( it may/might be Tim )

but COULDN'T is different from MAY NOT and MIGHT NOT 
( ali se COULDN'T razlikuje od MAY NOT ili MIGHT NOT )

·        She was too far away, so she couldn't have seen you. ( it's not possible that she saw you ).
                                                                                      (nije mogla da te vidi)
·        I wonder why she didn't say hello. She might not have seen you ( perhaps she didn't see you)
                                                                                                     (verovatno te nije videla)

MAY/ MIGHTto talk about possible actions or happenings in the future.
                         ( - radi izražavanja mogućih radnji ili događaja u budućnosti. )
·        I haven't decided yet where to spend my holidays. I may go to Ireland. (perhaps I will go to Ireland) ( Verovatno ću ići u Irsku)

Ususally it doesn't matter whether you use may/might ( Obično nema veze da li koristite may/might) -  I may/might go to Ireland. Use might not may when the situation is not real. ( Koristite might, ne may, kada situacija nije realna.)
·        If  I knew them better, I might invite them to dinner. ( The situation here is not real because I don't know them very well, so I'm not going to invite them. May is not possible) ( Ovde situacija nije realna jer ih ne poznajem dovoljno dobro, tako da ih neću pozvati. May nije moguće ovde)

CONTINUOUS FORM: MAY / MIGHT BE –ING

Compare: (Uporedite:)

·        Don't phone me at 8.30. I'll be watching the football on TV.
·        Don't phone at 8.30. I might be watching ( I may be watching) the football on TV.




MAY / MIGHT for possible plans
MAY / MIGHT za planiranje

·        I'm going to Irland in July. (for sure) ( Idem u Irsku u julu. (sigurno))
·        I MAY BE GOING (or MIGHT BE GOING)  to Irland in July. (possible)
     ( Možda ću/verovatno ću ići u Irsku u julu. (moguće))


MIGHT AS WELL / MAY AS WELL

·        We might as well do sth = We should do sth because there is nothing better to do and there is no reason not to do it. ( Trebamo nešto raditi jer nema ničeg bolje za raditi ili nema razloga da se nešto ne uradi.)
·         You can also say MAY AS WELL ( Možete takođe koristiti MAY AS WELL )

MUST / HAVE TO - to say that is necessary to do sth. Sometimes it doesn't matter which you use. (da bi se reklo da je nešto neophodno uraditi. Nekad nije bitno koji oblik koristite.)

·        Oh, it's later than I thought. – I must go / I have to go.

Differences
Razlike

MUST  – personal (ličan) . When we express our personal feelings.
·        You must do sth = I ( the speaker ) say it is necessary.
·        She's really nice person. You must meet her. (= I say this is necessary)

MUSTto talk about present / future not past.
·        I must go now
·        We must go tomorrow. ( not We must go yesterday )

HAVE TO – impersonal (bezličan). For facts, not for our personal feelings.( Radi činjenica, ne za lična osećanja.)

·        You have to do sth-because of a rule or the situation.
·        You can't turn right here. You have to turn left.
Compare : Uporedite:
·        I must get up early tomorrow. There are a lot of things I want to do. 
   ( Moram rano ustati sutra. Ima mnogo stvari koje želim uraditi.)
·        I have to get up early tomorrow. I'm going away and my train leaves at 7.30.
   (Moram rano ustati sutra. Putujem, a voz kreće u 7.30.)



HAVE TO – all forms:( svi oblici):

·        I had to go to hospital.
·        Have you ever had to go to hospital?
·        I might have to go to hospital.

QUESTIONS / NEGATIVE SENTENCES with HAVE TO – use DO / DOES / DID
·        What do I have to do to get a driving licnce?
·        Why did you have to go to hospital?
·        Karen doesn't have to work on Saturdays.


MUSTN'T ≠ DON'T HAVE TO

You mustn't do sth= it's necessary that you do not do it ( so don't do it )
                              (=bitno je to ne uraditi ( tako da nemoj to uraditi)
·        You must keep it a secret. You mustn't tell anyone. (= don't tell anyone) 
     ( Moraš to držati u tajnosti. Ne smeš reći nikome. (= nemoj reći nikome)

You dont have to do sth = you don't need to do it ( but you can if you want )
( Ne moraš nešto uraditi= nema potrebe da to uradiš ( ali možeš ako želiš) 
·        You can tell me if you want but you don't have to tell me. ( = you don't need to tell me)
     Možeš mi reći ukoliko želiš ali ne moraš. ( = nema potrebe da mi kažeš)

NEEDN'T  DO ≠ NEEDN'T HAVE ( DONE )

NEEDN'T DO= DON'T NEED TO DO=DON'T HAVE TO – ( nema potrebe uraditi)
·        That shirt isn't dirty. You needn't wash it. ( Ta majica nije prljava. Ne trebaš je prati.)

I NEEDN'T HAVE DONE STH= I did sth but I know it wasn't necessary. ( Uradio sam nešto ali znam da to nije bilo potrebno.)
·         Why did you wash that shirt! It wasn't dirty. You needn't have washed it.
       ( Zašto si oprao tu majicu! Nije bila prljava. Nisi je trebao prati.)  

Prepared by: Darija Radovanovic 





Simple Past ( Prosto prošlo vreme)

FORM 

GRAĐENJE

[VERB+ed] or irregular verbs
[GLAGOL+ed] ili nepravilni glagoli

Examples: Primeri:
  • You called Debbie.
  • Did you call Debbie?
  • You did not call Debbie.

USE 1 Completed Action in the Past

UPOTREBA 1 Svršene radnje u prošlosti


Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.
( Koristite prosto prošlo vreme radi naglašavanja da je radnja započeta i završena u određenom vremenu u prošlosti. Ponekad govornik možda neće, u stvari,  pomenuti određeno vreme, ali ima određeno vreme na umu.)

Examples: (Primeri:)
  • I saw a movie yesterday.
  • I didn't see a play yesterday.
  • Last year, I travelled to Japan.
  • Last year, I didn't travel to Korea.
  • Did you have dinner last night?
  • She washed her car.
  • He didn't wash his car.

USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions

UPOTREBA 2 Skup svršenih radnji 



We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen one after another in a sequence:

( Koristimo prosto prošlo vreme radi nabrajanja seta svršenih radnji u prošlosti.Ove radnje se odvijaju jedna nakon druge u nizu:)

Examples: Primeri:
  • I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim. ( Završio sam sa poslom, odšetao do plaže i našao fino mesto za plivanje.) 
  • He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00. (Stigao je sa aerodroma u 8h, prijavio se u hotelu u 9h i sreo se sa drugima u 10h.)
  • Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs? ( Da li si dodao brašno, sipao mleko i onda dodao jaja?)


USE 3 Duration in Past

UPOTREBA 3 Trajanje u prošlosti



The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.

Examples:
  • I lived in Brazil for two years.
  • Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
  • They sat at the beach all day.
  • They did not stay at the party the entire time.
  • We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
  • A: How long did you wait for them?
    B: We waited for one hour.

USE 4 Habits in the Past



The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.
Examples:
  • I studied French when I was a child.
  • He played the violin.
  • He didn't play the piano.
  • Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
  • She worked at the movie theater after school.
  • They never went to school, they always skipped class.

USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations


The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to."


Examples:
  • She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
  • He didn't like tomatoes before.
  • Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?
  • People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.

IMPORTANT When-Clauses Happen First

Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when I dropped my pen..." or "when class began..." These clauses are called when-clauses, and they are very important. The examples below contain when-clauses.
Examples:
  • When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.
  • She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.
When-clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. Both of the examples above mean the same thing: first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered my question. It is not important whether "when I paid her one dollar" is at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she answered my question, and then, I paid her one dollar.
Example:
  • I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You just called Debbie.
  • Did you just call Debbie?


Past Continuous

 

FORM

[was/were + present participle]
Examples:
  • You were studying when she called.
  • Were you studying when she called?
  • You were not studying when she called.

USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past





Use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.
Examples:
  • I was watching TV when she called.
  • When the phone rang, she was writing a letter.
  • While we were having the picnic, it started to rain.
  • What were you doing when the earthquake started?
  • I was listening to my iPod, so I didn't hear the fire alarm.
  • You were not listening to me when I told you to turn the oven off.
  • While John was sleeping last night, someone stole his car.
  • Sammy was waiting for us when we got off the plane.
  • While I was writing the email, the computer suddenly went off.
  • A: What were you doing when you broke your leg?
    B: I was snowboarding.

 

 

 

USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption


In USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter action in the Simple Past. However, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.
Examples:
  • Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.
  • At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.
  • Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work.

IMPORTANT

In the Simple Past, a specific time is used to show when an action began or finished. In the Past Continuous, a specific time only interrupts the action.
Examples:
  • Last night at 6 PM, I ate dinner.
    I started eating at 6 PM.
  • Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.
    I started earlier; and at 6 PM, I was in the process of eating dinner.

USE 3 Parallel Actions



When you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.
Examples:
  • I was studying while he was making dinner.
  • While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television.
  • Were you listening while he was talking?
  • I wasn't paying attention while I was writing the letter, so I made several mistakes.
  • What were you doing while you were waiting?
  • Thomas wasn't working, and I wasn't working either.
  • They were eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.

 

 

USE 4 Atmosphere

In English, we often use a series of parallel actions to describe the atmosphere at a particular time in the past.
Example:
  • When I walked into the office, several people were busily typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to each other about the bad service.

USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"


The Past Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happened in the past. The concept is very similar to the expression "used to" but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."
Examples:
  • She was always coming to class late.
  • He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone.
  • I didn't like them because they were always complaining.

 

While vs. When

Clauses are groups of words which have meaning, but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when she called" or "when it bit me." Other clauses begin with "while" such as "while she was sleeping" and "while he was surfing." When you talk about things in the past, "when" is most often followed by the verb tense Simple Past, whereas "while" is usually followed by Past Continuous. "While" expresses the idea of "during that time." Study the examples below. They have similar meanings, but they emphasize different parts of the sentence.
Examples:
  • I was studying when she called.
  • While I was studying, she called.


REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Past Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Past.

Examples:
  • Jane was being at my house when you arrived. Not Correct
  • Jane was at my house when you arrived. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You were just studying when she called.
  • Were you just studying when she called?










 

Present Perfect

FORM

[has/have + past participle]
Examples:
  • You have seen that movie many times.
  • Have you seen that movie many times?
  • You have not seen that movie many times.

USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now



We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.
Examples:
  • I have seen that movie twenty times.
  • I think I have met him once before.
  • There have been many earthquakes in California.
  • People have traveled to the Moon.
  • People have not traveled to Mars.
  • Have you read the book yet?
  • Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
  • A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
    B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.

How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect?

The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics:

TOPIC 1 Experience

You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event.

Examples:
  • I have been to France.
    This sentence means that you have had the experience of being in France. Maybe you have been there once, or several times.
  • I have been to France three times.
    You can add the number of times at the end of the sentence.
  • I have never been to France.
    This sentence means that you have not had the experience of going to France.
  • I think I have seen that movie before.
  • He has never traveled by train.
  • Joan has studied two foreign languages.
  • A: Have you ever met him?
    B: No, I have not met him.

TOPIC 2 Change Over Time

We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time.
Examples:
  • You have grown since the last time I saw you.
  • The government has become more interested in arts education.
  • Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.
  • My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.

TOPIC 3 Accomplishments

We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time.
Examples:
  • Man has walked on the Moon.
  • Our son has learned how to read.
  • Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
  • Scientists have split the atom.

TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting

We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen.
Examples:
  • James has not finished his homework yet.
  • Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.
  • Bill has still not arrived.
  • The rain hasn't stopped.

TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times

We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible.
Examples:
  • The army has attacked that city five times.
  • I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
  • We have had many major problems while working on this project.
  • She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.

Time Expressions with Present Perfect

When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important.



Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc.




Examples:
  • Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
  • I have seen that movie six times in the last month.
  • They have had three tests in the last week.
  • She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far.
  • My car has broken down three times this week.

NOTICE

"Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires Simple Past. "In the last year" means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect.
Examples:
  • I went to Mexico last year.
    I went to Mexico in the calendar year before this one.
  • I have been to Mexico in the last year.
    I have been to Mexico at least once at some point between 365 days ago and now.

USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)









 


With Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.
Examples:
  • I have had a cold for two weeks.
  • She has been in England for six months.
  • Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.
Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You have only seen that movie one time.
  • Have you only seen that movie one time?

 

 

 

 

 

Present Perfect Continuous

FORM

[has/have + been + present participle]
Examples:
  • You have been waiting here for two hours.
  • Have you been waiting here for two hours?
  • You have not been waiting here for two hours.

USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now


We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.
Examples:
  • They have been talking for the last hour.
  • She has been working at that company for three years.
  • What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?
  • James has been teaching at the university since June.
  • We have been waiting here for over two hours!
  • Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?

USE 2 Recently, Lately


You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning.
Examples:
  • Recently, I have been feeling really tired.
  • She has been watching too much television lately.
  • Have you been exercising lately?
  • Mary has been feeling a little depressed.
  • Lisa has not been practicing her English.
  • What have you been doing?

IMPORTANT

Remember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of "lately" or "recently." If you use the Present Perfect Continuous in a question such as "Have you been feeling alright?", it can suggest that the person looks sick or unhealthy. A question such as "Have you been smoking?" can suggest that you smell the smoke on the person. Using this tense in a question suggests you can see, smell, hear or feel the results of the action. It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly.

REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Present Perfect.
Examples:
  • Sam has been having his car for two years. Not Correct
  • Sam has had his car for two years. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You have only been waiting here for one hour.
  • Have you only been waiting here for one hour?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
  • Recently, John has been doing the work. Active
  • Recently, the work has been being done by John. Passive
NOTE: Present Perfect Continuous is less commonly used in its passive form.

Past Perfect

FORM

[had + past participle]
Examples:
  • You had studied English before you moved to New York.
  • Had you studied English before you moved to New York?
  • You had not studied English before you moved to New York.

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past




The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.
Examples:
  • I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
  • I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
  • Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
  • Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
  • She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
  • Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
  • We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.
  • A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
    B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.


USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)



With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.
Examples:
  • We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.
  • By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
  • They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.
Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect



Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.
Example:
  • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.


MOREOVER

If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. The words "before" and "after" actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.
Examples:
  • She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
  • She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.

HOWEVER



If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.
Examples:
  • She never saw a bear before she moved to Alaska. Not Correct
  • She had never seen a bear before she moved to Alaska. Correct

 

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You had previously studied English before you moved to New York.
  • Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?
Examples:
  • George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license. Active
  • Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic's license. Passive

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

( I had been doing)

Upotreba:
Za radnju koja je bila u toku određeno vreme u prošlosti pre nego što se nešto drugo desilo. Ovo vreme koristimo kada je reč o trajanju određene situacije ili radnje. Ne trebamo brkati sa Past Perfect koji koristimo kada pričamo o završenoj radnji ili situaciji kao i njenim efektima.

Primeri:
  1. We' d been playing tennis for about an hour when it started to rain heavily.
  2. George went to the doctor last Friday. He hadn't been feeling well for some time.



Razlika između Past Perfect Continuous i Past Perfect:

  • She had been suffering from flu when she was interviewed.
  • She had suffered from asthma when she was very young.
  • I'd been finishing some work in the garden and hadn't seen Sue come home.
  • I'd finished all my work, so I had very little to do.
  • Bill had been saving since Christmas to buy a new bike.
  • Bill had saved enough money to buy the bike he wanted.

Ponekad je razlika između ova dva vremena jednostavno stvar naglašavanja:

  • I'd been working hard, so I felt that I deserved a holiday. ( naglašava samu aktivnost)
  • I'd worked hard , and the report was not finished. ( naglašava rezultat )

Ako govorimo koliko je dugo nešto trajalo u prošlosti do nekog trenutka, koristimo Past Perfect Continuous. Ukoliko pričamo o tome koliko se puta nešto desilo do određenog tenutka u prošlosti koristimo Past Perfect:

  • They had been travelling for about 36 hours. ( bolje nego They had travelled..)
  • We had been looking at the painting for about ten minutes before we realised who the artist was. ( bolje nego We had looked..)
  • I'd heard the simphony many times before. ( not I'd been hearing ..)

Međutim, neki glagoli stanja se ne koriste obično u trajnim oblicima, tako da koristimo Past Perfect sa ovim glagolima čak i kada je reč o trajanju radnje:

  • I had always believed that it would be easy to get a job. ( I had always been believing...)
  • We had owned the car for 6 months before we discovered it was stolen. ( not We had been owning..)




Ovo vreme se često meša i sa Past Continuous :

  • When we met Susan and Tom, they had been cooking. ( = sreli smo ih nakon što su završili sa kuvanjem)
  • When we met Susan and Tom, they were cooking. (= sreli smo ih u trenutku kad  su kuvali )
  • When we arrived home , our children had been playing the computer games. ( deca su prestala da igraju igrice kada smo stigli kući)
  • When we arrived home, our children were playing the computer games. ( deca su i dalje igrala igrice)


VEŽBE:







Simple Future

Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to." Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings. These different meanings might seem too abstract at first, but with time and practice, the differences will become clear. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future.


FORM Will

[will + verb]
Examples:
·         You will help him later.
·         Will you help him later?
·         You will not help him later.

FORM Be Going To

[am/is/are + going to + verb]
Examples:
·         You are going to meet Jane tonight.
·         Are you going to meet Jane tonight?
·         You are not going to meet Jane tonight.

 

USE 1 "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action


"Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. Often, we use "will" to respond to someone else's complaint or request for help. We also use "will" when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use "will not" or "won't" when we refuse to voluntarily do something.


Examples:
·         I will send you the information when I get it.
·         I will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it.
·         Will you help me move this heavy table?
·         Will you make dinner?
·         I will not do your homework for you.
·         I won't do all the housework myself!
·         A: I'm really hungry.
B: I'll make some sandwiches.
·         A: I'm so tired. I'm about to fall asleep.
B: I'll get you some coffee.
·         A: The phone is ringing.
B: I'll get it.

USE 2 "Will" to Express a Promise

"Will" is usually used in promises.
Examples:
  • I will call you when I arrive.
  • If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access to inexpensive health insurance.
  • I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party.
  • Don't worry, I'll be careful.
  • I won't tell anyone your secret.

USE 3 "Be going to" to Express a Plan

"Be going to" expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not.






Examples:
·         He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii.
·         She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii.
·         A: When are we going to meet each other tonight?
B: We are going to meet at 6 PM.
·         I'm going to be an actor when I grow up.
·         Michelle is going to begin medical school next year.
·         They are going to drive all the way to Alaska.
·         Who are you going to invite to the party?
·         A: Who is going to make John's birthday cake?
B: Sue is going to make John's birthday cake.

USE 4 "Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a Prediction

Both "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In "prediction" sentences, the subject usually has little control over the future and therefore USES 1-3 do not apply. In the following examples, there is no difference in meaning.
Examples:
  • The year 2222 will be a very interesting year.
  • The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year.
  • John Smith will be the next President.
  • John Smith is going to be the next President.
  • The movie "Zenith" will win several Academy Awards.
  • The movie "Zenith" is going to win several Academy Awards.

IMPORTANT

In the Simple Future, it is not always clear which USE the speaker has in mind. Often, there is more than one way to interpret a sentence's meaning.

No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future forms, the Simple Future cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Simple Future, Simple Present is used. Examples:

  • When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Not Correct
  • When you arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Correct


ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You will never help him.
  • Will you ever help him?
  • You are never going to meet Jane.
  • Are you ever going to meet Jane?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
  • John will finish the work by 5:00 PM. Active
  • The work will be finished by 5:00 PM. Passive
  • Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight. Active
  • A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight. Passive












Future Continuous

Future Continuous has two different forms: "will be doing " and "be going to be doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.

FORM Future Continuous with "Will"

[will be + present participle]
Examples:
  • You will be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
  • Will you be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight?
  • You will not be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.

FORM Future Continuous with "Be Going To "

[am/is/are + going to be + present participle]
Examples:
  • You are going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
  • Are you going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight?
  • You are not going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives tonight.
REMEMBER: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Continuous with little difference in meaning.

USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Future



Use the Future Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.
Examples:
  • I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight.
  • I will be waiting for you when your bus arrives.
  • I am going to be staying at the Madison Hotel, if anything happens and you need to contact me.
  • He will be studying at the library tonight, so he will not see Jennifer when she arrives.
Notice in the examples above that the interruptions (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

 

USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption in the Future



In USE 1, described above, the Future Continuous is interrupted by a short action in the future. In addition to using short actions as interruptions, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.
Examples:
  • Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner.
    I will be in the process of eating dinner.
  • At midnight tonight, we will still be driving through the desert.
    We will be in the process of driving through the desert.

REMEMBER

In the Simple Future, a specific time is used to show the time an action will begin or end. In the Future Continuous, a specific time interrupts the action.
Examples:
  • Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to eat dinner.
    I am going to start eating at 6 PM.
  • Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner.
    I am going to start earlier and I will be in the process of eating dinner at 6 PM.

USE 3 Parallel Actions in the Future




When you use the Future Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions will be happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.
Examples:
  • I am going to be studying and he is going to be making dinner.
  • Tonight, they will be eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.
  • While Ellen is reading, Tim will be watching television.
    Notice "is reading" because of the time clause containing "while."

USE 4 Atmosphere in the Future

In English, we often use a series of Parallel Actions to describe atmosphere at a specific point in the future.

Example:
  • When I arrive at the party, everybody is going to be celebrating. Some will be dancing. Others are going to be talking. A few people will be eating pizza, and several people are going to be drinking beer. They always do the same thing.

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future tenses, the Future Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Continuous, Present Continuous is used.
Examples:
  • While I am going to be finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Not Correct
  • While I am finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Correct

AND REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Future Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Future.
Examples:
  • Jane will be being at my house when you arrive. Not Correct
  • Jane will be at my house when you arrive. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You will still be waiting for her when her plane arrives.
  • Will you still be waiting for her when her plane arrives?
  • You are still going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives.
  • Are you still going to be waiting for her when her plane arrives?


ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
  • At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes. Active
  • At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John. Passive
  • At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes. Active
  • At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John. Passive
NOTE: Passive forms of the Future Continuous are not common.

Future Perfect

Future Perfect has two different forms: "will have done" and "be going to have done." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect forms are usually interchangeable.

FORM Future Perfect with "Will"

[will have + past participle]
Examples:
  • You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
  • Will you have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?
  • You will not have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.

FORM Future Perfect with "Be Going To"

[am/is/are + going to have + past participle]
Examples:
·         You are going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
·         Are you going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?
·         You are not going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Perfect with little or no difference in meaning.

USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Future






The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future. 
Examples:
·         By next November, I will have received my promotion.
·         By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house.
·         I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock.
·         Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she moves to Beijing?
·         Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this afternoon.
·         By the time I finish this course, I will have taken ten tests.
·         How many countries are you going to have visited by the time you turn 50?
Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs)



With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future.
Examples:
  • I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.
  • By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.
Although the above use of Future Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.

REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future forms, the Future Perfect cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect, Present Perfect is used.
Examples:
  • I am going to see a movie when I will have finished my homework. Not Correct
  • I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework. Correct


ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You will only have learned a few words.
  • Will you only have learned a few words?
  • You are only going to have learned a few words.
  • Are you only going to have learned a few words?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
  • They will have completed the project before the deadline. Active
  • The project will have been completed before the deadline. Passive
  • They are going to have completed the project before the deadline. Active
  • The project is going to have been completed before the deadline. Passive

Future Perfect Continuous

Future Perfect Continuous has two different forms: "will have been doing " and "be going to have been doing." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect Continuous forms are usually interchangeable.

FORM Future Perfect Continuous with "Will"

[will have been + present participle]
Examples:
  • You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
  • Will you have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?
  • You will not have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

FORM Future Perfect Continuous with "Be Going To"

[am/is/are + going to have been + present participle]
Examples:
  • You are going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
  • Are you going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?
  • You are not going to have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Perfect Continuous with little or no difference in meaning.

USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Future


We use the Future Perfect Continuous to show that something will continue up until a particular event or time in the future. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Friday" are all durations which can be used with the Future Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous; however, with Future Perfect Continuous, the duration stops at or before a reference point in the future.




Examples:
  • They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives.
  • She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes.
  • James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time he leaves for Asia.
  • How long will you have been studying when you graduate?
  • We are going to have been driving for over three days straight when we get to Anchorage.
  • A: When you finish your English course, will you have been living in New Zealand for over a year?
    B: No, I will not have been living here that long.
Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because these future events are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

USE 2 Cause of Something in the Future



Using the Future Perfect Continuous before another action in the future is a good way to show cause and effect.
Examples:
  • Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour.
  • Claudia's English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she is going to have been studying English in the United States for over two years.

Future Continuous vs. Future Perfect Continuous

If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday," many English speakers choose to use the Future Continuous rather than the Future Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Future Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Future Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the future. Study the examples below to understand the difference.
Examples:
  • He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard.
    This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will be exercising at that exact moment in the future.
  • He will be tired because he will have been exercising so hard.
    This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will have been exercising for a period of time. It is possible that he will still be exercising at that moment OR that he will just have finished.


REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses

Like all future forms, the Future Perfect Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous is used.
Examples:
  • You won't get a promotion until you will have been working here as long as Tim. Not Correct
  • You won't get a promotion until you have been working here as long as Tim. Correct

AND REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Future Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Future Perfect .
Examples:
  • Ned will have been having his driver's license for over two years. Not Correct
  • Ned will have had his driver's license for over two years. Correct

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
  • You will only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.
  • Will you only have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?
  • You are only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives.
  • Are you only going to have been waiting for a few minutes when her plane arrives?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
  • The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. Active
  • The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. Passive
  • The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished. Active
  • The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished. Passive NOTE: Passive forms of the Future Perfect Continuous are not common.











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