Saturday, 26 October 2013

The Present Simple/Continuous Tense


THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE

Present Simple Tense (Prosto sadašnje vreme) se gradi od osnovnog oblika glagola (infinitiv bez to). Na primer, infinitiv sa «to» glagola raditi glasi to work a infinitiv bez «to» glasi work.

Za sva lica osim za treće lice jednine potvrdni oblik prostog sadašnjeg vremena glasi work. Za treće lice se dodaje –s 

I work – Ja radim                             We work – Mi radimo
You work – Ti radiš
He works – On radi                         You work – Vi radite
She works – Ona radi
It works – Ono radi                       They work – Oni rade
 
Nastavak –s u trećem licu jednine može imati različite oblike. Ukoliko se glagol završava na vokal o nastavak će glasiti –es, kao u primeru glagola go koji u 3. l. jed. glasi goes ili glagol do koji u 3. l. jed. glasi does.
Ukoliko se glagol završava na –ch, -sh, -x, -ss, nastavak takođe glasi –esNa primer:He teaches (teach – predavati).  She washes (wash – prati). He kisses (kiss – ljubiti). She fixes (fix – popravljati).Ako se glagol završava na –y i ukoliko je ispred njega suglasnik –y prelazi u –ie. Na primer:He cries (cry -plakati).It flies (fly – leteti).Ako je ispred –y samoglasnik, nema promene.She plays (play – igrati).He stays (stay – ostati). 
Izuzetak je glagol have (imati) koji u trećem licu glasi has.
 
Upitni oblik glagola u Present Simple Tense-u se gradi od pomoćnog glagola Do, odnosno Does (za treće lice jednine) i osnovnog oblika glavnog glagola. Sva pitanja se u engleskom jeziku dele na Yes/No pitanja i Wh- pitanja. Yes/No nemaju upitnu reč i na njih se može odgovoriti sa Da ili Ne. Wh- pitanja počinju upitnom rečju a one su: when, what, why, where, how, how much, how many...   

Do I work? – Da li ja radim?                   Do we work? – Da li mi radimo?
Do you work? – Da li ti radiš?
Does he work? – Da li on radi?              Do you work? – Da li vi radite?
Does she work? – Da li ona radi?         Do they work? – Da li oni rade?
Does it work? – Da li ono radi?







Fill in the empty places and then put the sentences into interrogative and question form: ( Popunite prazna polja i potom stavite rečenice u odričan i upitan oblik):

  1. I usually _____ to school by bus. (go)
  2. Peter _______ a student. (be)
  3. My mother _______ TV often. (watch)
  4. Maria rarely ______ sports clothes. (wear)
  5. I _____ these shoes. (like)
  6. The earth _____ round the sun. (go)
  7. I _____ from Serbia. (come)
  8. Steve _____ tea often. (drink)
  9. My sister ______ to eat chocolate very much.(like)
  10. The café ______ at 7.30 in the morning. (open)

Spelling:
Look at the verbs ending in:
Obratiti pažnju na glagole koji se završavaju na:

  1. CH,SH,S,SS,X,O – kod kojih se dodaje nastavak ES za treće lice jednine a ne S!!

watch- watches ( She watches TV every night)
wash-washes    (Susan usually washes her clothes.)
dress-dresses    (Peter always dresses smartly.)
do-does             (My sister does her homework after school.)

  1. Glagoli koji se završavaju na sugladnik +Y menjaju Y u I i dodaje se nastavak ES!

      cry-cries ( She often cries when she hears bad news.)
      try-tries   ( He tries to save his marriage.)




Glagol TO BE je nepravilan u prezentu i upitan i odričan oblik gradi drugačije od drugh glagola.

  1. I am  ( I am a student.)
  2. We/You/ They are
  3. He/She/It is

Upitan oblik se gradi inverzijom subjekta i glagola:

  1. Am I?
  2. Are you? ( Are you a student?)

Odričan oblik se gradi uz pomoć rečice NOT koja se dodaje na glagol.

  1. I am not (I'm not) ( I'm not a student.)
  2. You are not (You aren't ili You're not..)
  3. He is not (He isn't ili He's not)

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS (PROGRESSIVE)  TENSE
FORM (GRAĐENJE)

It is formed with the verb to be and ing suffix to the main verb. ( Gradi se od pomoćnog glagola  to be i ing nastavka na glavni glagol -glagol koji nosi značenje.)

I.        affirmative form ( potvrdan oblik) 

1.                                2.                       3.

[S( I, YOU, HE, SHE, IT..] + [TO BE (AM/IS/ARE) ] + [V+ING] 
 You                                         are                               reading  a book at the moment.

II.        question form ( upitan oblik) 

inversion (inverzija)
2.                                     1.                                   3.
[TO BE (AM/IS/ARE) ]       [S( I, YOU, HE, SHE, IT..]            [V+ING] 
Are                        you                                  reading a book?

III.    negative form ( odričan oblik)

[S( I, YOU, HE, SHE, IT..] + [TO BE (AM/IS/ARE) ] + [NOT] [V+ING] 
1.                               2.                        4.     3.
You                                         are                                 not      reading  a book.
 

USE: UPOTREBA
Present:
  1. For the things happening at the moment of speaking. ( Za radnje koje se dešavaju u trenutku govora.)
  I'm sitting on the chair and writing this now.
  1. For the things happening around the present moment. That are not currently happening, but started in the past and will continue some time in the future.  ( Za radnje koje se dešavaju oko sadašnjeg trenutka. Koje se ne dešavaju trenutno, ali su započete u prošlosti i nastaviće se verovatno neko vreme u budućnosti).
 I'm reading a good book these days.
  1. To desctibe actions which are repeated or regular, but are either temporary or may be judged to be temporary:
She is  studying English at the University of Belgrade.
 ( She won't study English all her life, it's considered as something that is temporal.) 
 
 Is he still visiting his mother in hospital?
 ( His mother is currently there and he is visiting her for some period of time while she's there)
  1. To refer to gradual processes of change: ( Da ukažu na postepen proces menjanja):
    Computers are improving faster than ever! 


Future:
  1. For the things we arranged with somebody to do : ( Za stvari koje smo dogovorili sa drugima da uradimo:)
I'm meeting Tim tomorrow.











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